Instructions: Answer two of the following three essay questions. Use the extra pages for your responses. Responses should be written in complete sentences and should address all parts of the question. The two essay responses are each worth 11.5 points for a total of 23 possible points.
1. According to Blumstein and Wallman, how did the violence rate increases vary across race and gender groups? What are the major factors they discuss as potential factors associated with crime rate changes over time? (name and describe them). What did they conclude about each and whether each was related to changes in violence rates over time?
2. Based on the Rodriguez Always Running book, what factors led Luis and his friends to form/enter gangs? What were the different gangs fighting over? Why were the gang members involved in sometimes deadly situations? (that is, why were they willing to kill and die for their barrios?) Why did Luis participate in violence even on occasions when he did not want to do so? Make sure to consider, where appropriate, the roles of exclusion from mainstream society, lack of economic opportunities and poverty, and powerlessness in your answer.
3. Based on the Rodriguez Always Running book, briefly describe Luiss educational experiences from his first days in school to the end of high school. More importantly and more generally, what was the role of school and education in the lives of the youths? According to Luis, on what basis were students placed into curriculum tracks? How well did their high school educations prepare even those students who finished school for the future? What types of violence occurred in and around school? Why? In your answer, be sure to address where appropriate the role of racism and discrimination.