According to the psychological perspective and research, how can early childhood stressful experiences (e.g., neglect, abuse, or lack of a secure attachment) influence the developmental of behavioral problems?

Next, referring directly to the textbook, briefly explain all three elements of the integrated model.

Last, select one form of an anxiety disorder and explain how one of the elements of the integrated model can be used to explain the origins of that disorder. Anxiety disorders to choose from include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety phobia, specific phobia, separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, and agoraphobia.

Student 1

Michelle Roof

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7/2/2016 10:58:33 AM

Unit 5 disc, specific phobias

Professor and Class, So far in the textbook by Durand and Barlow (2013), there has been a lot focused on a person’s vulnerability along with the feeling for not being in control. How a perShow More

Professor and Class,

So far in the textbook by Durand and Barlow (2013), there has been a lot focused on a person’s vulnerability along with the feeling for not being in control. How a person deals with the uncontrollable aspects of the world can originate in their childhood. It is during our childhood that the awareness of chaos that we exist in if first understood. How a child deals with this realization and learns to cope with it comes from how they were raised, from their parents (Durand & Barlow, 2013). A child could grow up believing that they have complete control and have confidence in that belief or grow up with uncertainty that manifest when trying to figure out how they will deal with upcoming events (Durand & Barlow, 2013). It is the children who grow up in a secure environment where they are allowed to explore their world and learn to cope with unexpected situations are able to feel like they are in control (Durand & Barlow, 2013). However, if the children are overprotected and not allowed to meet adversity and bet it will not have those skills and will have anxiety later in life (Durand & Barlow, 2013). Growing up in an abusive environment may have the same effects as those who grow up overprotected. The child learns that nothing is within their control, and every situation can become dangerous.

The three elements that make up the Integrated Model are: generalized biological vulnerability, generalized psychological vulnerability, and specific psychological vulnerability (Durand & Barlow, 2013). The generalized biological theory is the vulnerability that is inherited that contributes to negative affect. Generalized psychological vulnerability is the generalized helplessness that exists within the person in every situation. The specific psychological vulnerability is the physical situation that causes weakness because of past experiences or the person was taught that certain situations are dangerous (Durand & Barlow, 2013).

Specific phobias follow the integrated model begins with the generalized biological vulnerability since some things like snakes, spiders, and heights, are deadly to humans so the fear has been passed down throughout the species or a person can develop a fear. The pathway pictured by Durand ad Barlow (2013), showed stress due to life events, causing a false alarm to a situation or a specific object. The person could also have a direct experience or vicarious experience that could cause a true alarm. Both of the false alarms and the true alarms become a learned alarm. A specific psychological vulnerability is a specific object or situation is dangerous. This vulnerability and the learned alarm both flow to generalized psychological vulnerability and wither this fear with future contact or straight from the learned alarm a specific phobia can develop (Durand & Barlow, 2013). I know its apart of discussion rules to not talk about personal things, but I have one that follows this and it is a silly fear from childhood that doesn’t affect me every day so I found this interesting. When I was 3 years old I can still remember walking through a field one day during the summer when there was a locust infestation. I just remember the locust jumping at me at every step in multitudes. To this day my fight or flight responses kick in when I see a grasshopper, worse in an enclosed space. Logically, I know a grasshopper cannot cause me any harm, but I can see how that fear stuck and became imprinted in my mind. I do joke with my family that grasshoppers are dangerous and will take over the world one day because they all know of the phobia.

Durand, M. V., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). Essentials of abnormal psychology. (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Wadsworth.

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