Hazardous Materials-

1) An oxidation number describes the combining capability of one ion to another ion or of one atom to another atom. Which of the following statements regarding oxidation numbers is FALSE?

  1. H2S contains sulfur which has an oxidation number of -2.
  2. Each oxygen in KMnO4 has an oxidation number of -2, and the oxidation number of K is +1; therefore, the oxidation number on Mn in this compound is +7.
  3. The oxidation number of a monoatomic ion is the same as its ionic charge, such that Na ion has an oxidation number of +1.
  4. The oxidation number of each atom in an element is zero, such that the oxidation number of Cl2 is -2.

2) Fireworks are items intentionally designed for the purpose of producing visual and audible effect by means of combustion, explosion, deflagration, and detonation reactions. Select which of the following statements is FALSE regarding fireworks.

When shipping fireworks, the Department of Transportation (DOT) requires that the applicable EX-number and Department of Defense (DOD) national stock number be included in the description.
A component of fireworks is a mixture of oxidizing and reducing agent.
Fireworks could not be used as weapons of mass destruction.
The most commonly encountered oxidizers in fireworks include sodium chlorite, sodium chlorate, and sodium perchlorate.

3) Metallic peroxides and metallic hypochlorites, when used as bleaching agents, are distinguished by calling the latter chlorine bleach.

  1. For hypochlorite bleaching agents, why do manufacturers sometimes identify their available chlorine on product labels? Explain what available chlorine means?
  2. Discuss some hazards associated with metallic hypochlorites.
  3. Discuss how water can effectively extinguish oxidizer supported fires.

Your total response must be at least 200 words in length.

4) Ammonium nitrate is the most commercially important chemical product containing the ammonium ion.

  1. List and describe at least two grades of commercially available ammonium nitrate.
  2. Why does OSHA require employers to store bulk quantities of ammonium nitrate within a bin that is clean and free of contaminants? Give an example of a contaminant, and describe its interaction with ammonium nitrate.

Your total response must be at least 200 words in length.

5) Ethanol Fires can be difficult to extinguish. Discuss why this is true and what approach firefighters might use to fight this type of fire.

Your total response must be at least 200 words in length.

6) The multiple components of crude oil are separated by a process called fractionation (fractional distillation) at petroleum refineries.

  1. Rank (or arrange) the following petroleum products according to their increasing risk of fire and explosion at room temperature, and provide the technical basis for the ranking: asphalt, aviation gasoline, transmission fluids, propane, and kerosene.
  2. Why do most experts recommend the use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to extinguish crude oil fires inside a bulk storage tank?

Your response must be at least 200 words in length.

7) PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are man-made organic chemicals that were first manufactured in 1929, but their manufacture was banned in 1979 when they were found to cause effects such as cancer, birth defects, and liver damage. Which of the following is FALSE regarding PCBs?

If analysis of a transformer fluid shows a PCB concentration of less than 50 ppm, EPA considers the transformer PCB contaminated.
The highly toxic compounds polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins are products of incomplete combustion of PCB fires.
PCB transformers are still in use today.
The tolerance limit of PCB residues in shellfish is 2 ppm.

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