500 words 1st discussion.
Appropriated and Nonappropriated Funds. Contrast appropriated and nonappropriated funds; identify and discuss the possible sources of both in a criminal justice agency. Research on the topic this week using sources in addition to your textbook will better allow you to understand funding within the criminal justice organization and how funds may come from fines from court judgments against citizens and forfeitures of property by criminals. In addition, governments may impose user fees such as fees for driver’s licenses and vehicle registration or for increased police presence at a large outdoor rally. Finally, funds may come from grants from state and federal government agencies or private organizations.
500 words 2nd discussion
The Rockefeller laws created disparities in federal sentencing guidelines for crack and powder cocaine, although these are different forms of the same drug. Prior to 2010, the disparity in sentencing for crack and powder cocaine was 100-to-1. This means that five grams of crack would trigger a mandatory sentence of five years, while 500 grams of powder cocaine were needed to trigger the same sentence. Under the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010, the disparity necessary to trigger a mandatory minimum sentence of five years was reduced from to 18-to-1. Does this “solve” the problem or does the 18-to-1 disparity still result in racially biased sentencing? Regardless of whether you think the disparity is racially discriminatory, what do you think justifies the difference?