There is a saying in emergency management that all disasters are local. When local entities become overwhelmed, they depend on the state for additional assistance. Once the state becomes overwhelmed, the governor requests assistance from the federal government.
The above description is both practical and consistent with the reality of emergency management. It represents one of the best illustrations of federalism in the United States. Federalism is a system of government in which state governments have a protected existence. States can make independent decisions, with some exceptions and exclusions, independently of the federal government. Disasters often test the federalist system because they often involve multiple states, all levels of government, as well as nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector.
For this assignment, review the video Leveraging Federal Resources for Public Health & Medical Disaster Preparedness and Response provided in this week’s Learning Resources. Then consider national-level policy reforms in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Think about how these policy reforms influenced and continue to influence emergency management at state and local levels.
The assignment: (2–3 pages)
- Describe at least two national-level policy reforms that occurred in response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
- Describe at least two national-level policy reforms that occurred in response to Hurricane Katrina.
- Explain how the national-level policy reforms you described influenced and continue to influence emergency management at state and local levels.
- Be specific and provide examples to support your response.