1.  Describe the field of Human-Ecology.
  2. In order for participants in a dialogue to understand each other they must use shared metaphors.  Explain. (What is a metaphor?)
  3. Why can’t you safely assume that an idea of yours, which you have labelled with spoken words, has been understood in the same way as you, by the listener who has received the words you have spoken?
  4. True or False:  Conflicts over the meaning of a term between two individuals trying to communicate, indicates that they are probably using different metaphors or different conceptual source domains.  EXPLAIN
  5. True or False: Dialog between people with different ideas often creates good, powerful ideas.


  6. Were you surprised at the results of you Ecological Footprint Analysis?  Why?

    What could you do to make your footprint smaller?

  7. Explain why, on a finite planet, social-ecological impacts in one place, can or cannot be solved by displacing them to another place.
  8. TRUE or FALSE:  If human use of an ecosystem service is to continue, humans must respect the rates at which the stock from which the service is drawn is replenished.  EXPLAIN.
  9. In the conflict for water resources described in the Snowy River Case Study:
    1. the grazing of sheep and cattle in the High Country caused soil erosion which led to the silting up of the reservoirs behind the dams and threatened the water security for the farmers.
    2. farmers began to plant crops in the High Country using the manure from the cattle and sheep.
    3. Snowy Hydro diverted water from the Murray River to provide water for the sheepherder’s stock.
    4. the Miners Union sabotaged the construction of Snowy Hydro by blowing up the first dam.
    5. all of the above.
  10. TRUE or FALSE:  A change in the value of any one of the variables in a feedback system may eventually cause a change in the values of all of the other variables – even feeding back to influence the value of the original variable that was initially changed!
  11. Systems dynamics studies are focused on:
    1. the way that a feedback system changes in response to internally generated forces.
    2. the way that a feedback system changes in response to externally generated forces.
    3. applying the knowledge of system changes to improve policy making and management outcomes.
    4. all of the above.
    5. “a” and “c” but not “b”.


  1. In system dynamics, stocks can include:
    1. water in a tank,
    2. number of elephants in a grassland,
    3. amount of money in an account,
    4. happiness,
    5. political will.
    6. All of the above.
    7. Only  “a”, “b”, “c” above.
  2. TRUE or FALSE:  It is necessary to be a mathematician to use system dynamics models to understand complex human-ecological relationships, because the “stock and flow” approach has a very rigorous mathematical grounding.

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