Answer the following questions, in a total of 650 to 800 words.

  • Describe the structure of DNA and the steps of protein synthesis.
  • Describe the relationships between the following terms:
    • DNA
    • Chromatin material
    • Gene
    • Chromosome
  • Use the following gene in protein synthesis:
      • Show the mRNA.
      • Show the tRNA.
      • Name the amino acids that will be placed in the polypeptide chain. (Use the codon table in Ch. 10, Figure 10.8A of Campbell Biology.)
  • A gene will direct the making of polypeptide chains, and polypeptide chains form proteins. All enzymes are proteins. Therefore, how would you explain carrying a gene for a trait that does not show up in the offspring?
  • In order for DNA to pass genetic information to the next generation, DNA must replicate successfully. Mistakes in replication could result in major problems in heredity.
    • Explain how DNA replicates.
    • Describe the formation of the leading strand and lagging strand and include the enzymes involved.
    • Why do the legs replicate differently?

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