Fill in the Blank (2pts per blank)

  1. Psychologists talk about three clocks that influence our lives and decisions: the ___________________, ______________, and the _______________l. Explain how these three clocks may influence an individual’s decision to have children.
  1. The root meaning of the word discipline means to __________.


  1. ____________________ are those that a parent explains to the child as being the outcome of his behavior.


  1. ________________________works by removing something unpleasant when positive or desired behavior has occurred, thereby making it more likely that the response will be repeated when the unpleasant situation begins again.
  1. Parents affect their children’s development by influencing the speed by which a child progresses on a certain trajectory. This affect is referred to as ________________ or _______________ on a pathway.
  1. ________________ is attempting to influence how a child perceives or thinks about an experience after the event is over.
  1. _____________________ is the way parents mediate children’s experience is by helping a child interpret a situation while (or shortly after) the child is experiencing it.
  1. Pre-arming helps to prepare children for adverse situations and feelings, so the technique has also been called “_____________________.”
  1. It can be hypothesized that parents guide their children’s development in three ways.
    1. Parents establish ___________, determining the direction that the children’s development will take.
    2. Parents ____________, exerting a powerful influence on how children perceive, react to, and understand their environment and experiences.
    3. Parents _____________ at which children have experiences that may prochild mote their development.
  1. The recent advance in computer technology of the _____________ and ______________ devices has opened up a new world of interactivity and technology for young children, even as young as two years old
  1. Areas of serious concern related to overuses of technology in young children’s lives are _____________________, _________________, and ____________________.


  1. _____________________ refers to the degree to which parents provide a predictable, organized environment for a child
  1. Problem behaviors that are directed outward, toward other people, are called _______________ .

True and False (2pts)

  1. All punishment involves corporal punishment.
  2. A neonate is born with all the brain cells that he or she will ever have.
  3. “Time out” is viewed by psychologists as a form of punishment.
  4. Each of Erikson’s stages (for children) can be linked with Galinsky’s stages (for parents).
  5. The use of technology to teach emergent literacy has been supported through several studies.
  6. Newborns spend more time sleeping than any other single activity.
  7. An infant is born as a tabula rasa or blank slate.
  8. Couples who do not have good communication patterns tend to have a greater decrease in marital satisfaction than other couples.
  9. Later-born children are rebellious.

Essay Question/Short Answers

  1. Name the three categories used to describe temperament. (6pts)
  1. Suppose a mother subscribed to an attachment theory of development but her husband believed in a learning theory approach. How would their choice of parenting practices conflict? (8pts)
  1. According to Ellen Galinsky, what are the six stage of parenthood? A) Name the six stages and describe four of the six stages. (10pts)

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