In your responses to peers, discuss the most common type of cellular injury occurring within the human body

In your responses to peers, discuss the most common type of cellular injury occurring within the human body. Need Response to Deborah: Cellular injury can be due to many unfavorable internal and external environment changes. Many of these cellular injuries can occur by “hypoxia, free radicals, infectious agents, physical and mechanical factors, immunologic agents and nutritional imbalance” (McCance & Huether, 2014, p. 55). There are many progressive types of cell injury with its responses. There are four biochemical phases that occur when cellular injury begins. First it starts with ATP depletion, decrease levels of oxygen which leads to increase levels of oxygen-derived free radicals, increase calcium inside the cell, loss of calcium steady state, and defects in its cell membrane permeability (McCance & Huether, 2014). The two types of cellular injury that will be mention is reversible and irreversible cellular injury. Reversible cell injury may recover from prior normal function for example cellular swelling. Irreversible cellular injury is a point of no return. Cells cannot return to viable conditions for example results of this condition leads to cell death like hypoxic injury, chemical injury, and free radical (McCance & Huether, 2014). Reversible cellular injury can occur by nutritional imbalance. Many essential nutrients are needed to maintain function of a cell. “If nutrients are not consumed in the diet and transported to the body’s cell or if excessive amounts of nutrients are consumed and transported, pathophysiologic cellular develop” (McCance & Huether, 2014, p. 75). An example would be malnutrition in children or older adult. Starvation and malnutrition cause lower levels of plasma proteins which leads to fluid move into the interstitium which is edema (McCance & Huether, 2014). Irreversible cellular injury can occur in a state of hypoxia which is lack of sufficient oxygen to the cells. “Hypoxia can result from a reduced amount of oxygen in the air, loss of hemoglobin function, decrease production of red blood cells, consequences of respiratory and cardiovascular system diseases and poisoning of the oxidative enzymes (cytochromes) within the cells” (McCance & Huether, 2014, p. 56). A very common cause of hypoxia is ischemia which is reduce in blood supply to the cells. “Hypoxia can induce inflammation and inflamed lesions can become hypoxic” (McCance & Huether, 2014, p. 56). Another example of irreversible cellular injury would be infectious agents like virus or bacteria. “The microorganism depends on its ability to invade and destroy cells, produce toxins, and produce damaging hypersensitivity reactions” (McCance & Huether, 2014, p. 75). Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a type of virus that attacks and weakens the immune system. Cells become destroyed especially white blood cells which makes the body harder to fight off infections. It’s important that cells have a balance between intracellular and extracellular events in order to have a functional cell which will help avoid negative issues in the human body.

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