Alex grew up in a violent and abusive home. His father drank to intoxication each night and neglected Alex until he turned three, at which point his father began to physically abuse Alex regularly. Alex’s mother screamed at him any time he cried as a child, and she rarely held or tried to soothe him. What types of behaviors would one possibly see from Alex during childhood? Describe the possible effects of the abuse in terms of the HPA axis, including brain structures and neurotransmitters. How might a psychologist approach working with Alex to address any maladaptive behaviors you identified?

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